DEBtox information
Making sense of ecotoxicity test results

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DEBtox information

DEBtox information

Publications / Papers on DEBtox


The papers here are organised by year of publication. Each paper gets a few keys to facilitate searching by topic. Each paper has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), that uniquely identifies it on the internet. Clicking the link provides the abstract, and also the PDF if you have access rights to that journal. Papers dealing with survival only, are located here.

Requirements to be included

Only models based on DEB-theory (or sufficiently similar) are included in the list below. There must be a toxicant in the study, although I included some papers with food stress as well.

Essential reading



general paper
dealing with life-cycle data
survival data only
dealing with mixtures of toxicants
full DEB3 model used
includes population effects
includes community level
algal, bacterial or cell toxicity
related to molecular level
growth data only
time-varying exposure

Full list by year


  • Kooijman SALM and Metz JAJ (1984). On the dynamics of chemically stressed populations: the deduction of population consequences from effects on individuals. Ecotox Environ Saf 8:254-274 key_gen, key_pop


  • Klok C, De Roos AM, Marinissen JCY, Baveco HM and Ma WC (1997). Assessing the effects of abiotic environmental stress, on population growth in Lumbricus rubellus (Lubricidae, Oligochaeta). Soil Biol Biochem 29(3-4):287-293 key_lif, key_pop

  • Pablos MV, Boleas S, Tarazona JV (1998). Use of Mfu-galactoside enzymatic activity as ecotoxicological endpoint on rainbow trout red blood cells. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61:786-792 key_alg

  • Urrestarazu Ramos E, Vaes WHJ, Mayer P and Hermens JLM (1999). Algal growth inhibition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa by polar narcotic pollutants: toxic cell concentrations and QSAR modeling. Aquatic Toxicol 46(1):1-10 key_alg

  • Jager T, Crommentuijn T, Van Gestel CAM and Kooijman SALM (2004). Simultaneous modeling of multiple endpoints in life-cycle toxicity tests. Environ Sci Technol 38:2894-2900 key_lif, key_pop

  • Alda Álvarez O, Jager T, Kooijman SALM and Kammenga JE (2005). Responses to stress of Caenorhabditis elegans populations with different reproductive strategies. Funct Ecol 19:656-664 key_lif, key_pop

  • Alda Álvarez O, Jager T, Marco Redondo E and Kammenga JE (2006). Physiological modes of action of toxic chemicals in the nematode Acrobeloides nanus. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:3230-3237 key_lif, key_pop
  • Alda Álvarez O, Jager T, Nuñez Coloa B and Kammenga JE (2006). Temporal dynamics of effect concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 40:2478-2484 key_lif
  • Arzul G, Quiniou F and Carrie C (2006). In vitro test-based comparison of pesticide-induced sensitivity in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 16(8): 431-437 key_alg
  • Jager T, Heugens EHW and Kooijman SALM (2006). Making sense of ecotoxicological test results: towards application of process-based models. Ecotoxicology 15:305-314 key_gen, key_lif, key_pop
  • Pieters BJ, Jager T, Kraak MHS and Admiraal W (2006). Modeling responses of Daphnia magna to pesticide pulse exposure under varying food conditions: intrinsic versus apparent sensitivity. Ecotoxicology 15:601-608 key_lif, key_tim
  • Smit MGD, Kater BJ, Jak RG and Van den Heuvel-Greve MJ (2006). Translating bioassay results to field population responses using a Leslie-matrix model for the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. Ecol Mod 196:515-526 key_lif, key_pop

  • Billoir E, Péry ARR and Charles S (2007). Integrating the lethal and sublethal effects of toxic compounds into the population dynamics of Daphnia magna: a combination of the DEBtox and matrix population models. Ecol Mod 203(3-4):204-214 key_lif, key_pop
  • Ducrot V, Péry ARR, Mons R, Queau H, Charles S and Garric J (2007). Dynamic energy budget as a basis to model population-level effects of zinc-spiked sediments in the gastropod Valvata piscinalis. Environ Toxicol Chem 26(8):1774-1783 key_lif
  • Hall, SR, Becker, C and Cáceres, CE (2007). Parasitic castration: a perspective from a model of dynamic energy budgets. Integr Comp Biol 47(2):295-309 key_lif
  • Jager T, Crommentuijn T, Van Gestel CAM and Kooijman SALM (2007). Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reveals two modes of action in the springtail Folsomia candida. Environ Pollut 145:452-458 key_lif, key_pop
  • Klok C, Holmstrup M and Damgaardt C (2007). Extending a combined dynamic energy budget matrix population model with a Bayesian approach to assess variation in the intrinsic rate of population increase. An example in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. Environ Toxicol Chem 26(11):2383-2388 key_lif, key_pop

  • Billoir E, Delignette-Muller ML, Péry ARR, Geffard O and Charles S (2008). Statistical cautions when estimating DEBtox parameters. J Theor Biol 254(1):55-64 key_lif, key_gen
  • Billoir E, Delignette-Muller ML, Péry ARR and Charles S (2008). A Bayesian approach to analyzing ecotoxicological data. Environ Sci Technol 42(23):8978-8984 key_lif
  • Klok C (2008). Gaining insight in the interaction of zinc and population density with a combined Dynamic Energy Budget and population model. Environ Sci Technol 42(23):8803-8808 key_lif, key_pop
  • Kooi BW, Bontje D and Liebig M (2008). Model analysis of a simple aquatic ecosystems with sublethal toxic effects. Math Biosci Eng 5:771-787 key_alg, key_com
  • Kooi BW, Bontje D, Van Voorn GAK and Kooijman SALM (2008). Sublethal toxic effects in a simple aquatic food chain. Ecol Modelling 112:304-318 key_alg, key_com
  • Péry ARR, Gust M, Vollat B, Mons R, Ramil M, Fink G, Ternes T, Garric J (2008). Fluoxetine effects assessment on the life cycle of aquatic invertebrates. Chemosphere 73:300–304 key_lif

  • Billoir E, Ferrao AD, Delignette-Muller ML and Charles S (2009). DEBtox theory and matrix population models as helpful tools in understanding the interaction between toxic cyanobacteria and zooplankton. J Theor Biol 258(3):380-388 key_lif, key_pop
  • Bontje D, Kooi BW, Liebig M and Kooijman SALM (2009). Modelling long-term ecotoxicological effects on an algal population under dynamic nutrient stress. Wat Res 43:3292-3300 key_alg, key_pop

  • Baas J, Jager T and Kooijman SALM (2010). Understanding toxicity as processes in time. Sci Total Environ 408:3735-3739 key_gen
  • Baas J, Jager T and Kooijman SALM (2010). A review of DEB theory in assessing toxic effects of mixtures. Sci Total Environ 408:3740-3745 key_gen, key_mix
  • Heckmann LH, Baas J and Jager T (2010). Time is of the essence. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:1396-1398 key_gen, key_tim
  • Jager T and C Klok (2010). Extrapolating toxic effects on individuals to the population level: the role of dynamic energy budgets. Phil Trans R Soc B 365:3531-3540 key_gen, key_pop, key_db3, key_lif
  • Jager T, Vandenbrouck T, Baas J, De Coen WM and Kooijman SALM (2010). A biology-based approach for mixture toxicity of multiple endpoints over the life cycle. Ecotoxicology 19:351-361 key_gen, key_mix, key_db3, key_lif
  • Miller RJ, Lenihan HS, Muller EB, Tseng N, Hanna SK, Keller AA (2010). Impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles on marine phytoplankton. Environ Sci Technol 44(19):7329-7334 key_alg
  • Muller EB, Nisbet RM and Berkley HA (2010). Sublethal toxicant effects with dynamic energy budget theory: model formulation. Ecotoxicology 19(1):48-60 key_lif, key_pop
  • Muller EB, Osenberg CW, Schmitt RJ, Holbrook SJ and Nisbet RM (2010). Sublethal toxicant effects with dynamic energy budget theory: application to mussel outplants. Ecotoxicology 19(1): 38-47 key_lif
  • Swain S, Wren J, Stürzenbaum SR, Kille P, Morgan AJ, Jager T, Jonker MJ, Hankard PK, Svendsen C, Chaseley J, Hedley BA, Blaxter M and Spurgeon D (2010). Linking toxicant physiological mode of action in with induced gene expression changes Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Systems Biology 4:32 key_mol, key_lif

  • Ashauer R, Agatz A, Albert C, Ducrot V, Galic N, Hendriks J, Jager T, Kretschmann A, O’Connor I, Rubach MN, Nyman A-M, Schmitt W, Stadnicka J, van den Brink PJ and Preuss TG (2011). Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modelling of quantal and graded sub-lethal endpoints - a brief discussion of concepts. Environ Toxicol Chem 30(11):2519-2524 key_gen, key_lif
  • Billoir E, Delhaye H, Clément B, Delignette-Muller ML and Charles S (2011). Bayesian modelling of daphnid responses to time-varying cadmium exposure in laboratory aquatic microcosms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:693–702. key_lif
  • Eynaud Y, Nisbet RM and Muller EB (2011). Impact of excess and harmful radiation on energy budgets in scleractinian corals. Ecol Mod 222(7):1315-1322 key_lif, key_alg
  • Jager T and Selck H (2011). Interpreting toxicity data in a DEB framework; a case study for nonylphenol in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta. J Sea Res 66:456-462 key_gen, key_lif, key_db3
  • Massarin S, Beaudouin R, Zeman F, Floriani M, Gilbin R, Alonzo F and Pery ARR (2011). Biology-based modeling to analyze uranium toxicity data on Daphnia magna in a multigeneration study. Environ Sci Technol 45(9):4151-4158 key_lif
  • Wren, JF, Kille P, Spurgeon DJ, Swain S, Sturzenbaum SR, and Jager T (2011). Application of physiologically based modelling and transcriptomics to probe the systems toxicology of aldicarb for Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas 1900). Ecotoxicology 20:397-408 key_mol, key_lif
  • Zaldivar JM and Baraibar J (2011). A biology-based dynamic approach for the reconciliation of acute and chronic toxicity tests: Application to Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 82(11): 1547-1555 key_lif, key_pop

  • Augustine S, Gagnaire B, Adam-Guillermin C and Kooijman SALM (2012). Effects of uranium on the metabolism of zebrafish, Danio rerio. Aquat Toxicol 118:9-26 key_db3, key_lif
  • Billoir E, Delhaye H, Forfait C, Clément B, Triffault-Bouchet G, Charles S and Delignette-Muller ML (2012). Comparison of bioassays with different exposure time patterns: the added value of dynamic modelling in predictive ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 75:80-86. key_lif
  • Biron PA, Massarin S, Alonzo F, Garcia-Sanchez L, Charles S and Billoir E (2012). Population-level modeling to account for multigenerational effects of uranium in Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Technol 46:1136−1143 key_lif, key_pop
  • Jager T and Zimmer EI (2012). Simplified Dynamic Energy Budget model for analysing ecotoxicity data. Ecol. Mod. 225:74-81 key_gen, key_pop, key_lif
  • Klanjscek T, Nisbet RM, Priester JH, Holden PA (2012). Modeling physiological processes that relate toxicant exposure and bacterial population dynamics. PLoS ONE 7(2): e26955 key_alg, key_pop
  • Klok C, Hjorth M and Dahllöf I (2012). Qualitative use of Dynamic Energy Budget theory in ecotoxicology. Case study on oil contamination and Arctic copepods. J Sea Res 73:24–31 key_gen
  • Martin B, Zimmer EI, Grimm V and Jager T (2012). Dynamic Energy Budget theory meets individual-based modelling: a generic and accessible implementation. Methods Ecol Evol 3:445-449 key_gen, key_db3, key_pop (does not include toxicants, but can easily accommodate that!)
  • Zimmer EI, Jager T, Ducrot V, Lagadic L and Kooijman SALM (2012). Juvenile food limitation in standardized tests - a warning to ecotoxicologists. Ecotoxicology 21:2195-2204 key_gen, key_gro

  • Holden PA, Nisbet RM, Lenihan HS, Miller RJ, Cherr GN, Schimel JP and Gardea-Torresdey JL (2013). Ecological nanotoxicology: integrating nanomaterial hazard considerations across the subcellular, population, community, and ecosystems levels. Acc Chem Res 46(3):813-822 key_gen
  • Jager T (2013). All individuals are not created equal; accounting for inter-individual variation in fitting life-history responses to toxicants. Environ Sci Technol 47:1664-1669 key_gro, key_gen
  • Jager T, Barsi A and Ducrot V (2013). Hormesis on life-history traits: is there such a thing as a free lunch? Ecotoxicology 22:263-270 10.1007/s10646-012-1022-0 key_gen
  • Jager T, Martin BT and Zimmer EI (2013). DEBkiss or the quest for the simplest generic model of animal life history. J Theor Biol 328:9-18 key_lif, key_gen. (toxicant stress is discussed in supp. info.)
  • Klanjscek T, Nisbet RM, Priester JH and Holden PA (2013). Dynamic energy budget approach to modeling mechanisms of CdSe quantum dot toxicity. Ecotoxicology 22:319–330 key_alg, key_pop
  • Martin B, Jager T, Nisbet RM, Preuss TG and Grimm V (2013). Predicting population dynamics from the properties of individuals: a cross-level test of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. American Naturalist 181(4):506-519 key_lif, key_pop, key_db3. (does not include toxicant stress but food stress)
  • Martin BT, Jager T, Nisbet RM, Preuss TG, Hammers-Wirtz M and Grimm V (2013). Extrapolating ecotoxicological effects from individuals to populations: a generic approach based on Dynamic Energy Budget theory and individual-based modeling. Ecotoxicology 22:574-583 key_pop, key_db3

  • Barsi A, Jager T, Collinet M, Lagadic L and Ducrot V (2014). Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Environ Toxicol Chem 33(7):1466-1475 key_lif
  • Jager T, Barsi A, Hamda NT, Martin BT, Zimmer EI and Ducrot V. (2014). Dynamic energy budgets in population ecotoxicology: applications and outlook. Ecol Mod 280:140-147 key_gen, key_pop
  • Jager T, Gudmundsdóttir EM and Cedergreen N (2014). Dynamic modeling of sub-lethal mixture toxicity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Sci Technol 48:7026-7033 key_lif, key_mix
  • Martin B, Jager T, Nisbet RM, Preuss TG and Grimm V (2014). Limitations of extrapolating toxic effects on reproduction to the population level. Ecol Appl 24(8):1972-1983 key_pop, key_db3
  • Muller EB, Hanna SK, Lenihan HS, Miller RJ and Nisbet RM (2014). Impact of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles on the energy budgets of Mytilus galloprovincialis. J Sea Res 94:29–36 key_lif
  • Muller EB and Nisbet RM (2014). Dynamic energy budget modeling reveals the potential of future growth and calcification for the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in an acidified ocean. Global Change Biology 20(6):2031-2038 key_alg (deals with pH stress)
  • Zimmer EI, Ducrot V, Jager T, Koene J, Lagadic L and Kooijman SALM (2014). Metabolic acceleration in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis? J Sea Res 94:84-91 key_db3, key_lif (does not include toxicant stress but food stress)

  • Goussen B, Beaudouin R, Dutilleul M, Buisset-Goussen A, Bonzom JM and Péry ARR (2015). Energy-based modelling to assess effects of chemicals on Caenorhabditis elegans: a case study on uranium. Chemosphere 120:507–514 key_lif
  • Goussen B, Péry ARR, Bonzom JM and Beaudouin R (2015). Transgenerational adaptation to pollution changes energy allocation in populations of nematodes. Environ Sci Technol 49:12500−12508 key_lif


  • Cedergreen N, Nørhave NJ, Svendsen C and Spurgeon DJ (2016). Variable temperature stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) and its implications for sensitivity to an additional chemical stressor. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0140277. key_lif, key_mix
  • Goussen B, Price OR, Rendal C and Ashauer R (2016). Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors. Sci Rep 6:36004 key_pop, key_mix
  • Jager T, Ravagnan E and Dupont S (2016). Near-future ocean acidification impacts maintenance costs in sea-urchin larvae: identification of stress factors and tipping points using a DEB modelling approach. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 474:11-17. key_gro (deals with pH stress)
  • Margerit A, Gomez E and Gilbin R (2016). Dynamic energy-based modeling of uranium and cadmium joint toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans. Chemosphere 146:405–412. key_lif, key_mix


  • Desforges JPW, Sonne C and Dietz R (2017). Using energy budgets to combine ecology and toxicology in a mammalian sentinel species. Scientific Reports 7:46267. key_lif
  • Miller RJ,Muller EB, Cole B, Martin T, Nisbet R, Bielmyer-Fraser GK, Jarvis TA, Keller AA, Cherr G and Lenihan HS (2017). Photosynthetic efficiency predicts toxic effects of metal nanomaterials in phytoplankton. Aquatic Toxicol 183:85-93. key_alg
  • Lecomte-Pradines C, Hertel-Aas T, Coutris C, Gilbin R, Oughton D, Alonzo F (2017). A dynamic energy-based model to analyze sublethal effects of chronic gamma irradiation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A 80(16–18):830–844. key_lif


  • Ashauer R and Jager T (2018). Physiological modes of action across species and toxicants: The key to predictive ecotoxicology. Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts. key_gen (review)
  • Baas J, Augustine S, Marques GM and Dorne JL (2018). Dynamic energy budget models in ecological risk assessment: from principles to applications. Sci Total Environ 628-629:249-260 key_gen (review)
  • ...

The DEBtox information site,, since July 2011